# Furstenberg and Margulis to share the Abel Prize

The Abel Prize for 2020 goes to Hillel Furstenberg, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel and Gregory Margulis, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA, for “pioneering the use of methods from probability and dynamics in group theory, number theory and combinatorics.”

**Hillel Furstenberg**Hillel Furstenberg was born in Berlin in 1935. His family was Jewish and they managed to flee from Nazi Germany to the U.S. in 1939. Sadly, his father did not survive the journey, and Furstenberg grew up with his mother and sister in an orthodox community in New York.

Following a career in mathematics at several universities in the U.S., he left the country in 1965 for the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where he stayed until his retirement in 2003. Spending most of his career in Israel, he helped establish the country as a world center for mathematics.

Furstenberg has won the Israel Prize and the Wolf Prize.

When Hillel Furstenberg published one of his early papers, a rumor circulated that he was not an individual but instead a pseudonym for a group of mathematicians. The paper contained ideas from so many different areas, surely it could not possibly be the work of one man?

**Gregory Margulis**Gregory Margulis was born in Moscow in 1946. In 1978, he won the Fields Medal at only 32 years old but was unable to receive the medal in Helsinki since the Soviet authorities refused him a visa.

He was one of the top young mathematicians in the Soviet Union but was unable to find a job at Moscow University as he faced discrimination for being of Jewish origin. Instead, he found work at the Institute for Problems in Information Transmission. During the 1980s he visited academic institutions in Europe and the U.S. before settling at Yale in 1991, where he has been ever since.

Margulis is a winner of the Lobachevsky Prize and the Wolf Prize.

From early on Gregory Margulis, born in Moscow, showed a unique talent in mathematics, but he was only allowed to travel abroad in 1979 when Soviet academics were given more personal freedoms.

Due to the ten years age difference and the travel restrictions of the Soviet authorities, the laureates did not formally collaborate, however, they influenced each other’s work.

**Random walks**

Hillel Furstenberg and Gregory Margulis invented random walk techniques to investigate mathematical objects such as groups and graphs, and in so doing introduced probabilistic methods to solve many open problems in group theory, number theory, combinatorics and graph theory. A random walk is a path consisting of a succession of random steps, and the study of random walks is a central branch of probability theory.

“Furstenberg and Margulis stunned the mathematical world by their ingenious use of probabilistic methods and random walks to solve deep problems in diverse areas of mathematics. This has opened up a wealth of new results, such as the existence of long arithmetic progressions of prime numbers, understanding the structure of lattices in Lie groups, and the construction of expander graphs with applications to communication technology and computer science, to mention a few,” says Hans Munthe-Kaas, chair of the Abel committee.

“The works of Furstenberg and Margulis have demonstrated the effectiveness of crossing boundaries between separate mathematical disciplines and brought down the traditional wall between pure and applied mathematics,” says Hans Munthe-Kaas, chair of the Abel committee.

**About the Abel Prize:**

- The Abel Prize is funded by the Norwegian Government and consists of MNOK 7.5 (USD 834,000).
- The prize is awarded by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.
- The choice of the Abel laureates is based on the recommendation of the Abel Committee, which is composed of five internationally recognized mathematicians.

### Resources

### The Honouring of the 2020 Abel Prize Laureates

All events in connection to the Abel Prize Week in May are cancelled due to the Corona pandemic. The 2020 Abel Prize Laureates Hillel Furstenberg and Gregory Margulis will be honoured, together with the Abel Prize Laureate(s) of 2021 during next year’s Abel Prize Ceremony, May 25 2021.

### President of the Academy announces Abel Prize winner

The President of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, Hans Petter Graver will announce the winner of the 2020 on March 18. The Academy's choice of laureate is based on the Abel Committee's recommendation.

**The event will be in an all-digital format and streamed live from this location**

### Louis Nirenberg, Abel Prize laureate, dies at 94

Nirenberg was the Abel Prize recipient together with John F. Nash Jr. in 2015 and received the prize "for striking and seminal contributions to the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations and its applications to geometric analysis."

(27.01.2020) More### The Abel Prize is increased by 1.5 million NOK

The board of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters has decided to increase the prize amount for the Abel Prize from 6 to 7.5 million NOK.

(12.12.2019) More### Abel Prize celebrations in Oslo

#### Karen Uhlenbeck received the Abel Prize from H.M. King Harald V

His Majesty King Harald V presented the 2019 Abel Prize to Karen Uhlenbeck at an award ceremony in the University Aula in Oslo on the 21st of May. Uhlenbeck is "Professor Emerita of Mathematics and Sid W. Richardson Regents Chair at the University of Texas at Austin" and "Visitor in the School of Mathematics at the Institute for Advanced Study".

(17.05.2019) More